HUMAN TRAFFICKING LAWS IN THE U.S., State by State
Compiled by the National Conference of State Legislatures, revised November, 2011
To see the 2011 enactments only, click here.
Human trafficking is the control and exploitation of people for profit. As defined under U.S. federal law, victims of human trafficking include children involved in the sex trade, adults age 18 or over who are coerced or deceived into commercial sex acts, and anyone compelled into forced labor.
Human trafficking has become an increased concern for many state legislators throughout the country. This has led to a proliferation of state laws; these laws attack the issue in varying ways. This document provides an abstract for each human trafficking law state by state. The laws are organized into the following six categories:
- Laws criminalizing human trafficking and increasing penalties
- Laws creating task forces on trafficking, state commissions or committees
- Laws providing services and protections to victims of human trafficking
- Laws that prohibit destruction, concealment, removal or possession of any false passport, immigration or other government document
- Laws that establish extortion if threats to report immigration status
Laws criminalizing human trafficking and increasing penalties
Alabama H 432 (2010)
Relates to human trafficking; provides that it would be unlawful for a person, by coercion or deception, to cause another person to work or perform services having financial value or require that person to perform certain sexual activities; provides penalties; provides exemptions to a corporation if the corporation was not aware of the actions of its agents or employees.
Arizona HB 2405 (2011)
Relates to human smuggling organizations, provides offenses, penalties and that a person so convicted shall not be eligible for suspension of sentence, probation or pardon until the sentence has been served, the person is eligible for release or the sentence is commuted; provides for temporary release under certain circumstances.
Arizona SB 1059 (2010)
Adds transport by deception, coercion or force to current sex trafficking laws.
Arizona HB 2238 (2010)
Adds human trafficking to existing law.
Arizona SB 1281 (2009) (also see Destruction of Government Document section)
Expands the classification of sex trafficking by including a sexually‑explicit performance and knowingly trafficking a minor with the knowledge that they will engage in any prostitution or sexually‑explicit performance. Expands the definition of forced labor or services to include the classification of trafficking of persons.
Arizona HB. 1372 (A.R.S. §13-306) (2005) (also see Services to Victims section)
Establishes human trafficking and human smuggling as felonies. Provides that sex trafficking, if committed against a person who is under 15 years of age, is a dangerous crime against children.
Arizona SB 1338 nm (2005)
Adds “sex trafficking of a minor who is under 15 years of age” to those offenses which result in a presumptive sentence of 30 years of prison upon a subsequent offense of such qualifying crimes and to offenses requiring sex offender registration. Excluding certain offenders, prohibits approval of a registered sex offender’s residence for probation unless the number of probationers who are required to register and who reside in the multi-family dwelling is less than 10 percent of the number of dwelling units that are contained in the multifamily dwelling in counties with a population of more 2,500,000 people. Includes the person’s residence (where they live) and address (where they receive mail) among requirements for sex offender registration.
Arkansas S 222 (2010)
Affects probation and parole terms for human trafficking.
California AB 12 (2011)
Enacts the Abolition of Child Commerce, Exploitation and Sexual Slavery Act of 2011. Requires that anyone convicted of seeking to procure or procuring the sexual services of a prostitute, if the prostitute is under age 18, be ordered to pay an additional fine, not to exceed a specified amount, to fund programs and services for commercially exploited minors in the counties where the underlying offenses are committed.
California AB 22 (Cal Pen. Code §236.1) (2005) (also see Services to Victims section)
Establishes the crime of trafficking of a person for forced labor or services or for effecting or maintaining other specified felonies, and the crime of trafficking of a minor for those purposes, punishable by terms of imprisonment in the state prison for 3, 4, or 5 years, or 4, 6, or 8 years, respectively.
Colorado SB 140 (2010)
Repeals and relocates, with amendments, provisions relating to trafficking in adults, trafficking in children, and coercion of involuntary servitude; requires proof of the use of force, fraud, or coercion to prove the crime of trafficking in adults or trafficking in children and proof of the use of force or fraud to prove the crime of coercion of involuntary servitude; adds trafficking in adults, trafficking in children, and coercion of involuntary servitude.
Colorado HB 1123 (2009)
Revises provisions concerning trafficking of children and coercion of involuntary servitude by providing that “child” means any person under eighteen years of age, rather than sixteen. Specifies that the crime of trafficking in children is a Class 2 felony. Provides that a person commits “involuntary servitude” if he or she coerces another person to perform labor using threats of harm or a scheme to cause a person to believe that they will suffer harm.
Colorado SB 206 (2006)
Makes smuggling humans a Class 3 felony, unless the adult is an illegal immigrant, which makes the offense a Class 2 felony. Smuggling includes offering transportation to someone of illegal residency status to enter, pass through, or remain in either the United States or Colorado in exchange for money. A separate offense is brought against the smuggler for each person assisted.
Colorado SB 207 (2006)
Makes human trafficking a crime and increases penalties. Trafficking a human includes selling, exchanging, bartering or leasing an adult (16 years old or older) in exchange for money. Trafficking also includes receiving the services of an adult in exchange for money (section 1). Trafficking of any child under the age of 16 results in a Class 3 felony.
Connecticut SB 153 (2010)
Establishes penalties for prostitution and provides for the care of exploited children.
Connecticut SB 153 (53-394 et seq.) (2006)
Enhances criminal and civil penalties for people who coerce others to perform labor or engage in human trafficking. Authorizes the state to prosecute traffickers under the racketeering statute when there is a pattern of such activity and to seize property related to the crime.
Delaware HB 116 (§787) (2007) (See also Services section)
Creates felony crime of trafficking of persons and involuntary servitude patterned after the federal Department of Justice’s model legislation.
Florida SB 250 (2006) (See also Services section)
Makes human trafficking a crime. Trafficking includes threatening to destroy or destroying immigration documents for the purposes of forced employment.
Florida SB 1962 (Chapter 391) (2004)
Establishes the first degree felony of sex trafficking which provides up to 30 years in prison for anyone convicted for buying or selling minors for the purpose of prostitution or sex trafficking. Establishes two second degree felonies: obtaining forced labor; and, sex trafficking and human trafficking for anyone who knowingly participates in trafficking for purposes of forced labor or prostitution — this offense provides a criminal penalty of up to 15 years in prison. Provides that any sex trafficking activity that results in death or is committed against a person who is under the age of 14 be considered a first degree felony.
Idaho HB 235 (2011)
Relates to the Criminal Gang Enforcement Act; revises the definition of the term “pattern of criminal gang activity” to include reference to certain crimes, including possession of a weapon, bomb or destructive device, and sexual exploitation or battery of a child; and establishes the maximum period of imprisonment that may be imposed for related crimes, including crimes committed on school grounds.
Idaho HB 536 (18-8501 et seq.) (2006) (See also Services section)
Increases the punishment for crimes if the human trafficking is involved. Requires reporting on human trafficking victim resources in Idaho and the relationship of these resources to federally-funded programs.
Illinois HB 1469 (Act No. 94-9) (2005) (See also Services section)
Creates the offenses of involuntary servitude, sexual servitude of a minor, and trafficking of persons for forced labor and services. Mandates restitution and provides that the Illinois Attorney General, in cooperation with the Administrative Office of the Illinois Courts, State’s Attorneys, Circuit Court officials, the Dept. of Human Services, and the Dept. of Public Aid, must ensure that victims of trafficking or involuntary servitude are referred to appropriate social services, Federal and State public benefits programs, victim protection services and immigration assistance services.
Iowa SB 606 (2010)
This bill repeals the criminal offense of detention in a brothel. A similar criminal offense exists in Code chapter 710A (human trafficking)
Iowa SB 2219 (§710A.1 et seq.) (2006) (See also Services and Task Force sections)
Establishes human trafficking a felony under state laws. Orders training regarding the sensitive treatment of trafficking victims and encourages communication by law enforcement officials in the language of the victims. Institutes a Victim Compensation Fund for victims of trafficking. Calls for a study to examine the effects of trafficking on victims.
Kansas HB 2010 (2011)
Relates to civil procedure; relates to covered offenses and conduct giving rise to forfeiture to include theft, criminal discharge of a firearm, gambling, Medicaid fraud, dog and cock fighting or dog and cock fighting paraphernalia, prostitution, human trafficking, worthless checks, forgery, mistreatment of a dependent adult, identity theft or identity fraud, and criminal use of a financial card.
Kansas SB 37 (2011)
Amends the State Offender Registration Act regarding people who are required to register under out-of-state law and for offenses not otherwise required; relates to juvenile sex offenders, sexual exploitation of a child, sexually violent crimes, drug offenders, registration fees, registration violations, child care facility notification of registration, sex offender reporting, the registration time period for certain offenses, diversionary agreements or probation, Internet posting, and criminal records expungement.
Kansas SB 434 (2010)
Changes criminal procedures for a number of crimes; human trafficking is one of them.
Kansas SB 586 (2010)
Makes aggravated human trafficking a severity level 1, person felony.
Kansas SB 72 (K.S.A. §21-3707) (2005)
Creates the crime of trafficking as a severity level 2, person felony and aggravated trafficking as a severity level 1, person felony.
Kentucky SB 43 (§506.120 et seq.) (2007)
Creates felony crimes of human trafficking and promoting human trafficking. Adds human trafficking as an element to the crime of advancing prostitution.
Louisiana HB 49 (2011)
Relates to human trafficking; relates to the crimes of human trafficking and trafficking of children for sexual purposes; amends the elements of those crimes; provides for definitions; and provides for penalties.
Louisiana HB 531 (2010)
Amends the elements of the crime of human trafficking; provides for the crime of human trafficking and provides that it shall be unlawful for a person to knowingly recruit, harbor, transport, provide, solicit, or obtain another person through fraud, force or coercion to provide services or labor.
Louisiana HB 825 (2010)
Adds the crimes of human trafficking and trafficking of children for sexual purposes to enumerated crimes of violence and sex offenses for purposes of sex offender registration and notification requirements.
Louisiana HB 564 (2009)
Creates the crime of trafficking of children for sexual purposes and establishes criminal penalties for such crime.
Louisiana HB 970 (15:541) (2007)
Adds human trafficking as a possible element to crime of sexual offense against a victim who is a minor.
Louisiana HB 56 (Act 187) (2005)
Creates the crime of human trafficking as a separate state crime, defined as intentionally recruiting, harboring, transporting, another person through fraud, force or coercion to provide services or labor. Provides the following penalties: (1) Human trafficking – a fine up to $10,000 and imprisonment for up to 10 years. (2) Human trafficking when the purpose include certain forms of sexual activity – a fine of up to $15,000 and imprisonment for up to 20 years. (3) Human trafficking involving a person under the age of 18 – a fine up to $25,000 and imprisonment for not less than 5nor more than 25.
Maryland HB 345 (2011)
Adds specified human trafficking offenses to those crimes for which evidence may be gathered by, and a judge may grant an order authorizing, interception of oral, wire or electronic communications.
Maryland SB 299 (2011)
Adds human trafficking offenses to those crimes for which evidence may be gathered by interception of oral, wire or electronic communications by investigative or law enforcement officers; provides that a judge may grant an order authorizing such wiretapping; and relates to murder, kidnapping, sexual offenses, child abuse, child pornography, gambling, robbery, bribery, extortion, controlled substances, fraudulent insurance acts and destructive devices.
Maryland SB 517 (2010)
Adds and defines human trafficking in relation to gang laws.
Maryland HB 876 & SB 606 (11-303) (2007)
Provides felony penalties for human trafficking and human trafficking involving a minor.
Massachusetts HB 3808 (2011)
The legislation establishes the state crime of human trafficking for sexual servitude. Defined as intentionally subjecting, enticing, harboring, transporting or delivering another with the intent that the person engage in sexually explicit performance, production of pornography or sexual conduct for a fee or benefiting from sexual conduct of another, human trafficking for sexual servitude is now punishable by a mandatory-minimum term of five years, with a potential maximum sentence of up to 20 years, and a fine of up to $25,000. Human trafficking for sexual servitude involving a victim under 18 carries a potential maximum sentence of life in prison. A business entity convicted of human trafficking for sexual servitude may be fined up to $1 million.
Michigan HB 5748 (§750.451 et seq.) (2006) (See also Document section)
Add human trafficking to the Michigan Penal Code as a felony. Stiffens penalties for human trafficking. The bill defines trafficking as compelling a person into forced labor by causing or threatening bodily harm. The penalty for this crime is a prison sentence varying from up to 10 years to life, depending on the severity of the offense. The bill also forbids forced labor or services by threatening the destruction of immigration documents, and increases penalties for human trafficking. Makes the intention to traffic a human criminal. Finally, kidnapping, attempting to kill, murdering, or engaging in criminal sexual conduct with a trafficking victim is punishable by life imprisonment.
Minnesota HB 1505 (2009)
Increases the criminal penalties for certain promoting/sex trafficking offenses. Expands the sex trafficking and labor trafficking crimes; adds the promotion of prostitution/sex trafficking crime to the firearm law’s definition of a crime of violence.
Mississippi HB 381 (§97-3-107) (2006)
Creates the anti-human trafficking act, prohibits trafficking of persons for forced labor or services, involuntary servitude, sexual servitude of a minor, and to provide for liability of an accomplice in those acts. Increases the penalties for a person found guilty of human trafficking of any kind to prison sentence of up to 20 years.
Missouri HB 214 (2011)
Revises human trafficking laws; expands the crimes of abuse of an individual through forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude, peonage, sexual exploitation and sexual trafficking of a child; provides related criminal penalties; requires the court to order restitution; and provides an affirmative defense for prostitution.
Missouri HB 1487 (§168.071 R.S.Mo.) (2004) (See also Services section)
Establishes sexual trafficking of a child as a class A felony. Also provides that abusing an individual through forced labor and of trafficking for either forced labor or sexual exploitation is a class B felony. Establishes a class D felony for contributing to human trafficking through the misuse of documentation. Provides that as part of the sentencing for a human trafficking offense, the court must order the perpetrator to pay restitution to the victim. Provides that victims of any trafficking crimes will also be afforded the rights and protections provided in the federal Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000.
Montana SB 385 (2007)
Creates crimes of involuntary servitude and trafficking of persons for involuntary servitude. Provides penalties ranging from 10-100 years imprisonment and up to $100,000 in fines.
Nebraska LB 771 (2010)
This bill changes provisions relating to criminal offenses against a pregnant woman; human trafficking is included. This bill also classifies persons convicted of human trafficking as dangerous sex offenders, thereby subjecting them to sex offender registration and probation laws.
Nevada AB 383 (§200) (2007)
Creates the felony crimes of trafficking in persons and trafficking for illegal purposes which involves engaging in certain acts concerning the transportation of an illegal alien into this State with the intent to subject the person to certain acts relating to involuntary servitude. Requires the Director of the Department of Business and Industry to include on its website a link to the Social Security Administration where an employer may verify the social security numbers of his employees to prevent unlawful hiring or employment.
New Hampshire HB 474 (2009)
Prohibits trafficking in persons. Provides penalties for forcing a trafficked person to engage in a commercial sex act or performance and provides for forfeiture of items used in connection with trafficking. Makes such offenses involving a person under 18 years of age subject to an extended term of imprisonment.
New Jersey AB 2730 (Chapter 77) (2005)
Establishes human trafficking as a crime of the first degree, which is defined as “using a person for the purposes of engaging in unlawful sexual activity or providing unlawful labor or services.” Provides a mandatory term of imprisonment where the defendant participates in the human trafficking scheme as an organizer, supervisor, financier or manager. The mandatory term of imprisonment would be for a term of imprisonment of 20 years.
New Mexico SB 71 (2008)
Establishes human trafficking as a criminal offense and creates penalties.
New York SB 5902 (Penal Code §230.34, §135.35 et seq.) (2007)
Creates felony crimes and provides penalties related to human trafficking including sex trafficking and labor trafficking.
North Carolina HB 1896 (2006) (See also Document section)
Makes human trafficking a felony.
North Dakota SB 2209 (2009)
Makes human trafficking a felony and includes in the definition debt bondage, racketeering and forced labor or services.
Ohio SB 162 (2010)
Revises State regulation of telephone companies; includes human trafficking as a type of unlawful behavior in relation to telephone companies.
Ohio SB 235 (2010)
Creates offenses for trafficking in persons and unlawful conduct with respect to documents. Revises the involuntary servitude-related elements of kidnapping, increases the penalty for the offense of abduction based on involuntary servitude and clarifies an element of compelling prostitution that relates to the compelling of another to engage in specified conduct. The bill also includes abduction and trafficking in persons within the offense of conspiracy.
Oklahoma SB 956 (2010)
Relates to crimes and punishments; prohibits human trafficking; modifies what constitutes unlawful human trafficking; increases the age of a related victim for punishment purposes; provides that a victim may bring a civil action for actual and punitive damages; allows reasonable attorneys fees in the civil action; sets a statute of limitations for recovery in the civil action; authorizes the forfeiture and seizure or property.
Oklahoma HB 2983 (2010)
Relates to crimes and punishments; prohibits a person from conducting any financial transaction using the proceeds of an act of terrorism with the intent to further the commission of such an act, conceal or disguise the source of the proceeds, or conceal or disguise the intent to avoid a financial transaction reporting requirement; makes changes relating to electronic funds transfers and violations of the Antiterrorism Act and racketeer-influenced and corrupt organizations. Organizations related to Human trafficking are included.
Oregon SB 578 (§131.602 et seq.) (2007)
Creates the felony crimes of trafficking in persons and subjecting another person to involuntary servitude.
Pennsylvania HB 1112 (§9720.2, §911) (2006)
Includes human trafficking as an element of racketeering and provides for a maximum sentence of life sentence when one commits trafficking while committing rape or kidnapping.
Rhode Island HB 5044 (2010)
This act would define the crime of prostitution to include any location, would create punishments for individuals who would attempt to procure the services of a prostitute, and would define the crime of permitting prostitution within a premise.
Rhode Island HB 5661 (2009)
Mandates a fine of no less than forty thousand dollars and imprisonment for up to life for anyone found guilty of sex trafficking of a minor.
Rhode Island SB 605 (2009)
This act would mandate a fine of no less than forty thousand dollars ($40,000) and imprisonment for up to life for anyone found guilty of sex trafficking of a minor.
Rhode Island SB 5881 & SB 692 (§11-67-1 et seq.) (2007)
Creates the felony crimes of involuntary servitude and trafficking of persons for forces labor or commercial sexual activity. Provides for penalties.
South Carolina HB 4202 (2010)
Adds human trafficking to a list of offenses and makes it a class A felony.
South Dakota SB 176 (2011)
Provides for the crime of human trafficking, to establish the elements and degrees of the crime, and to provide penalties for the violation thereof; provides that no one may recruit, harbor, transport, provide or obtain, by any means, another person, knowing that force, fraud or coercion will be used to cause the person to engage in prostitution, forced labor or involuntary servitude; and provides for criminal penalties.
Tennessee HB 171 (2011)
As introduced, provides that real and personal property used in committing human trafficking offenses is subject to judicial forfeiture seizure and provides for disposition of funds from forfeited assets. Companion bill Tennessee SB 604 (2011).
Tennessee HB 1302 (2010)
This bill creates the new offenses of unlawful restraint, compelling prostitution, and compelling production of pornography and establishes a new civil cause of action against persons engaged in trafficking.
Tennessee SB 2724 (2010)
Under present law, the Tennessee Sexual Offender and Violent Sexual Offender Registration, Verification, and Tracking Act (the Act) requires a person who is convicted of a sexual offense or violent sexual offense to register and meet the other requirements of the Act. A sexual offense includes, among other offenses, kidnapping, except when committed by a parent of the minor. This bill clarifies that kidnapping is a sexual offense under the Act only where the victim is a minor. This bill adds the offense of trafficking for sexual servitude to the list of offenses that are violent sexual offenses.
Texas HB 2096 (Tex. Penal Code §20A.02 ) (2003)
Establishes trafficking as a second-degree felony with a sentence of two to 20 years imprisonment. If the persons trafficked or transported are under the age of 14, or if the commission of the offense results in death, the offense is a first-degree felony with a sentence of five to 99 years imprisonment.
Utah HB 230 (2010)
Modifies the Criminal Code regarding charging the offenses of human trafficking or human smuggling; provides that it is a separate offense regarding each person who is trafficked or smuggled in violation of current law.
Utah HB 339 (2008) (§76-5-308 et. seq.)
Provides for crimes of kidnapping, human trafficking, and smuggling.
Vermont HB 153 (2011)
Proposes to establish a comprehensive system of criminal penalties and prevention programs for human trafficking, and a program of services for human trafficking victims; and provides criminal punishments for child sex trafficking.
Vermont SB 125 (2009)
Create a new crime that addresses commercial sex trafficking by force, fraud or coercion.
Virginia HB 1898 (2011)
Amends existing law to make punishable as a Class 2 felony abduction of any child under age 16 for the purpose of concubinage or prostitution, of any one for the purpose of prostitution, or of any minor for the purpose of manufacturing child pornography.
Virginia HB 2016 (2009) (See also Document section)
Expands “abduction” to include abducting a person with the intent to subject the person to forced labor or services.
Washington SB 5546 (2011)
Concerns changes to the crime of human trafficking.
Washington HB 1175 (A.R.C.W. §7.68.350) (2003)
Establishes first and second degree sex trafficking and labor trafficking as a class A felony under Washington law. A first-degree offense carries a maximum sentence of 14 years in prison and, trafficking in the second-degree hold a maximum of nine years. Provides that victims of trafficking may sue for damages and for the cost of bringing the suit.
Laws creating task forces on trafficking, state commissions or committees
California AB 22 (Cal Pen. Code §236.1) (2005)
Establishes a task force to study various issues in connection with human trafficking and to advise the Legislature, as specified. The provisions relating to the task force would be repealed January 1, 2008.
California SB 180 (Cal Pen. Code § 13990) (2005)
Establishes the California Alliance to Combat Trafficking and Slavery (California ACTS) Task Force and require it to evaluate various programs available to victims of trafficking and various criminal statutes addressing human trafficking, and report to the Legislature, Governor, and Attorney General on or before July 1, 2007.
Colorado HB 1143 (C.R.S. §18-1.8-101) (2005)
Creates an interagency task force on human trafficking. Task force duties include: collecting and organizing data on the nature of trafficking in the state; investigating collaborative models for protecting the victims; measuring and evaluating progress of the state in preventing trafficking and prosecuting offenders; identifying available federal, state and local programs that provide services to trafficking victims; evaluating approaches to increase public awareness of trafficking; and analyzing existing state criminal statutes for their adequacy in addressing trafficking.
Connecticut SB 398 (2007)
Establishes the Trafficking in Persons Council to develop recommendations to strengthen state and local efforts to prevent trafficking, protect and assist victims of trafficking and prosecute traffickers.
Connecticut HB 5358 (Act No. 04-8) (2004)
Establishes an interagency task force on human trafficking to do the following: collect data on the nature of trafficking in the state and evaluate the state’s progress on trafficking; identify available federal, state, and local programs that provide services to trafficking victims; evaluate approaches to increase public awareness of trafficking; analyze and make recommendations regarding existing state criminal statutes’ ability to address trafficking; and, make recommendations on preventing trafficking, assisting victims, and prosecuting traffickers.
Florida SB 168 (2009)
Creates within the Executive Office of the Governor the Statewide Task Force on Human Trafficking to study the issues of human trafficking.
Hawaii HB 2051 (2006)
Establishes a task force to compile and review law and information from other states regarding support for victims of human trafficking and recommend changes to Hawaii law and programs on this topic.
Idaho HCR 18 (2005)
Authorizes the Legislative Council to appoint a committee to undertake and complete a study of human trafficking. The committee is charged with the following: data collection and findings on the nature and extent of human trafficking in Idaho; identification of available federal, state and local programs that provide services to trafficking victims; analysis and recommendations regarding the ability of existing state criminal statutes to address trafficking; and recommendations regarding the prevention of trafficking, the prosecution of offenses, and victim assistance.
Iowa SB 2219 (§710A.1 et seq.) (2006) (See also Services and Penalty sections)
Calls for a study to examine the effects of trafficking on victims.
Louisiana SCR 58 (2011)
Requests various public agencies and private associations and stakeholders to collaborate through the Human Trafficking of Minors Study Group to study and make recommendations to the Legislature about methods that can be used to help eliminate human trafficking of minors in Louisiana.
Maine HB 893 (2006)
Creates the Human Trafficking Task Force to propose criminal statutes and develop methods for a coordinated approach to assisting victims of human trafficking.
Maryland HB 674 (2011)
Requires the State Department of Education, in collaboration with the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, to provide awareness and training for student services directors in local education agencies on human trafficking, including strategies to prevent trafficking of children.
Minnesota HB 1505 (2009)
Authorizes the Commissioner of Public Safety to gather and compile data on human trafficking every two years.
New Hampshire SB 194 (2007)
Establishes a commission to study the trafficking of persons across borders for sexual and labor exploitation.
New York AB 6800 (2011)
Extends the Interagency Task Force on Human Trafficking until Sept. 1, 2013.
New York SB 5902 (Penal Code §230.34, §135.35 et seq.) (2007) (see also Penalty and Services sections)
Establishes an interagency task force on human trafficking.
Pennsylvania SR 253 (2010)
Directs the Joint State Government Commission to establish an advisory committee to study the problem of human trafficking and to make a report to the Senate on the issue of human trafficking. Includes a proposed State plan for the prevention of human trafficking and any recommendations for changes in State law, policies and procedures.
Rhode Island HB 8291 (2010)
(Resolution) Creates a House Commission whose purpose it would be to conduct a comprehensive study of human trafficking and the services that would be provided to the victims of human trafficking. This commission would be required to report its findings and results to the General Assembly on or before March 2, 2011, and said commission would expire on June 2, 2012.
Rhode Island HB 5661 (2009)
Creates an interagency human trafficking of persons task force.
Texas HCR 68 (2011)
Requests the lieutenant governor and the speaker of the House of Representatives to create a joint interim committee to study human trafficking in Texas.
Texas HB 1930 (2011)
Relates to the membership and duties of the Human Trafficking Prevention Task Force. Examines the extent to which human trafficking is associated with the operation of sexually oriented businesses and the workplace or public health concerns that are created by the association of human trafficking and the operation of sexually oriented businesses.
Texas SB 379 (2009)
Requires the Texas Fusion Center provide an annual report by the Texas Fusion Center regarding criminal street gangs that includes law enforcement strategies that have been proven effective in deterring gang involvement in human trafficking of persons.
Utah HB 64 (2009)
Authorizes the Office of the Attorney General to administer and coordinate the operation of a multi‑agency strike force to combat violent and other major felony crimes within the state associated with illegal immigration and human trafficking. Provides for voluntary participation in the strike force by officers of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and state and local law enforcement personnel.
Vermont SB 272 (2010)
Establishes the human trafficking task force; provides for a comprehensive system of criminal penalties, of prevention programs, and of services for human trafficking victims.
Vermont SB 125 (2010)
Expands sex registry laws to include human trafficking.
Virginia HB 2923 (§30-278) (2007)
Creates the Commission on the Prevention of Human Trafficking for the purpose of developing and implementing a state plan for the prevention of human trafficking.
Washington HB 2381 (RCW 7.68.350) (2003)
Establishes the Washington State Task Force Against the Trafficking of Persons to do the following: measure and evaluate the progress of the state in trafficking prevention activities; identify available federal, state, and local programs that provide services to victims of trafficking; and, make recommendations on methods to provide a coordinated system of support and assistance to victims of trafficking.
Laws providing services and protections to victims of human trafficking
Arizona HB 1372 (A.R.S. §13-306) (2005) (also see Penaltysection)
Provides for restitution to victims of sex trafficking and persons who were trafficked for the purposes of forced labor or services.
California AB 90 (2011)
Includes within the definition of criminal profiteering activity any crime in which the perpetrator induces, encourages or persuades, or causes through force, fear, coercion, deceit, violence, duress, menace, or threat of unlawful injury to the victim or to another person, anyone under age 18 to engage in a commercial sex act. Requires deposit of forfeiture proceeds from the above-referenced criminal activity into the Victim-Witness Assistance Fund for counseling and prevention programs.
California AB 764 (2011)
Allows taxpayers to designate on their tax returns that a specified amount in excess of the tax liability be transferred to the Child Victims of Human Trafficking Fund established in the State Treasury.
Provides that all money contributed to the fund, upon appropriation by the Legislature, be allocated to the Franchise Tax Board and the controller for reimbursement of costs, as provided, and to the California Emergency Management Agency, which would administer the funds granted to community-based organizations that serve minor victims of human trafficking, as provided.
California SB 1569 (Welfare & Inst. Code §13283 et seq.) (2006)
Extends eligibility for state and local public benefits, Medi-Cal health care and refugee cash assistance and employment services, to noncitizen victims of trafficking, domestic violence and other serious crimes, to the same extent as available to individuals admitted to the United States as refugees.
California AB 22 (Cal Pen. Code §236.1) (2005) (also see Penalty section)
Permits a victim of trafficking to bring a civil action for actual damages, provide for restitution and punitive damages, and would establish a victim-caseworker privilege.
Colorado SB 85 (2011)
Concerns a diversion program (prostitution program courts) for those who commit prostitution-related offenses.
Colorado SB 225 (§24-33.5-211) (2006)
Requires the Chief of the Colorado State Patrol to create a division to address human smuggling and human trafficking on state highways. Requires the division to include at least 12 employees for the 12-month period beginning July 1, 2006, and at least 24 employees for the 12-month period beginning July 1, 2007.
Connecticut SB 1500A (§51-63) (2007)
Provides that the Office of Victim Services within the Judicial Department contract with nongovernmental organizations to develop a coordinated response system to assist victims of the offense of trafficking in persons.
Delaware HB 116 (§787) (2007) (See also Penalty section)
Provides for restitution and victim protection.
Florida HB 1127 (2011)
Relates to abortions; requires that an ultrasound be performed on all women obtaining an abortion; requires that the ultrasound be reviewed with the patient before the woman gives informed consent for an abortion; requires that the woman must certify in writing that she declined to review the ultrasound and did so of her own free will and without undue influence; and provides an exception for victims of rape, incest, domestic violence, human trafficking or for women whose medical condition requires an abortion. Companion Bill FL SB 1744 (2011).
Florida HB 7181 (2007)
Requires the Department of Children and Family Services to provide services to immigrant survivors of human trafficking, domestic violence, and other serious crimes.
Florida SB 250 (2006) (See also Penalty section)
Provides that victims of trafficking can receive up to three times the monetary amount for their services as restitution.
Georgia HB 200 (2011)
Discourages trafficking of people for labor or sexual servitude and provides greater protections to those subject to such crimes. Provides for notification of federal assistance for certain people under the Crime Victims’ Bill of Rights, and increases penalties for crimes involving youth.
Idaho HB 536 (18-8501 et seq.) (2006) (See also Penalty section)
Provides for restitution and rehabilitation costs for victims of human trafficking. Requires reporting on human trafficking victim resources in Idaho and the relationship of these resources to federally-funded programs.
Illinois SB 1037 (2011)
Amends the Criminal Code to allow motions to vacate a verdict of guilty in crimes that involve prostitution when the crime is later found to result from having been a victim of human trafficking. Includes involuntary sexual servitude of a minor.
Illinois HB 1469 (Act No. 94-9) (2005) (See also Penalty section)
Mandates restitution and provides that the Illinois Attorney General, in cooperation with the Administrative Office of the Illinois Courts, State’s Attorneys, Circuit Court officials, the Dept. of Human Services, and the Dept. of Public Aid ensure that victims of trafficking or involuntary servitude are referred to appropriate social services, Federal and State public benefits programs, victim protection services and immigration assistance services.
Iowa SB 2219 (§710A.1 et seq.) (2006) (See also Penalty and Task Force sections)
Orders training regarding the sensitive treatment of trafficking victims and encourages communication by law enforcement officials in the language of the victims. Institutes a Victim Compensation Fund for victims of trafficking.
Maryland SB 327 (2011)
Enacts the Human Trafficking Victim Protection Act; authorizes anyone convicted of prostitution to file a motion to vacate the judgment under certain circumstances; requires the court to hold a hearing on the motion under certain circumstances; authorizes the court to take certain actions in ruling on the motion; requires the court to state on the record the reasons for its ruling on the motion; and establishes that a defendant in a proceeding under this act has the burden of proof.
Missouri HB 353 (Section 566.200 – 566.223) (2005)
Addresses human trafficking by establishing requirements for international matchmaking organizations. Provides that intentionally providing false or incomplete information required by these provisions is a class D felony.
Missouri HB 1487 (§168.071 R.S.Mo.) (2004) (See also Penalty section)
Provides that as part of the sentencing for a human trafficking offense, the court must order the perpetrator to pay restitution to the victim. Provides that victims of any trafficking crimes will also be afforded the rights and protections provided in the federal Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000.
New York SB 5902 (Penal Code §230.34, §135.35 et seq.) (2007) (see also see also Penalty and Task Force sections)
Provides services for victims of human trafficking.
Oklahoma SB 2258 (2010)
Creates the Greater Protecting Victims of Human Trafficking Act of 2010; relates to the transport of aliens; prohibits the destruction of documentation papers to extend an individual’s legal status; relates to human trafficking victim guidelines; authorizes establishment of an emergency hotline for human trafficking victims; authorizes posting of rights of victims; adds the threat of reporting a person as illegally present in the country for something of value or to perform an action to blackmail crimes.
Oregon SB 839 (2009)
Includes a victim of human trafficking as a person eligible for Address Confidentiality Program.
Rhode Island HB 5350 (2009)
This act would provide services and protections to victims of human trafficking.
South Carolina SB 1079 (§14-43.11) (2007)
Provides that illegal residents of the state are eligible for public benefits if they are victims of human trafficking as defined.
Texas HB 4009 (2009)
Establishes a victim assistance program to provide services to domestic victims of sex trafficking.
Texas HB 1121 (Code of Crim. Pro. §42.0191 et seq) (2007)
Provides for services and protection for victims of human trafficking.
Texas HB 1751 (Govt. Code §420.008) (2007)
Provides that monies collected from a fee imposed on sexually oriented business be used for prosecution and victim services related to human trafficking.
Tennessee HB 172 (2011)
The National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline Act Creates an obligation for certain businesses to post the following sign. National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline at 1-888-373-7888. If you or someone you know is being forced to engage in any activity and cannot leave – whether it is commercial sex, housework, farm work or any other activity – call the National Human Trafficking Hotline at 1-888-373-7888 to access help and services. Victims of human trafficking are protected under United States and Tennessee law.
Virginia HB 2190 (2011)
Requires the Department of Social Services to develop a plan to provide services to victims of human trafficking, which shall include provisions for identifying victims of human trafficking in the Commonwealth; helping human trafficking victims to apply for benefits and services to which they may be entitled; coordinating delivery of services for victims of human trafficking; preparing and disseminating educational and training programs and materials to increase awareness of human trafficking and services available to victims; developing and maintaining community-based services for victims of human trafficking; and helping victims to reunify with family reunification or return to their place of origin, if he or she so desires.
Washington SB 5482 (2011)
Authorizes existing funding to house victims of human trafficking and their families.
The Department of Commerce must use these funds to provide housing and shelter for extremely low-income households, including, but not limited to, housing for victims of human trafficking and their families and grants for building operation and maintenance costs of housing projects or units within housing projects that are affordable to extremely low-income households with incomes at or below 30 percent of the area median income, and that require a supplement to rent income to cover ongoing operating expenses.
Washington SB 5850 (2009)
Protects workers from human trafficking violations; requires domestic employers of foreign workers and international labor recruitment agencies to disclose certain information to foreign workers who have been referred to or hired by an employer in the state; requires persons licensed to practice medicine in this state to take a one‑time course on human trafficking that teaches methods of recognizing victims of human trafficking.
Washington SB 6339 (2008)
Provides for address confidentiality of victims of trafficking.
Washington SB 5127 (Chapter 358) (2005)
Improves services to victims of human trafficking by requiring the Director of the Office of Community Development to convene a work group to develop written protocols for service delivery to victims of trafficking. The work group will include other state agencies and will develop protocols for policies and procedures for interagency coordinated operations. A database will be established which is available to all affected agencies, listing services to victims of human trafficking. This workgroup will submit the final written protocols with a report to the legislature and the Governor by January 1, 2006.
Laws that prohibit destruction, concealment, removal or possession of any false passport, immigration or other government document
Arizona SB 1281 (2009) (See also Penalty section)
Prohibits destruction of a person’s identification, passport, government document or immigration document.
Hawaii HB 1912 (2008)
Prohibit destruction, concealment, removal or possession of any false passport, immigration or other government document.
Kansas SB 353 (2010)
Concerns trafficking; relates to coercing employment through force or fraud; concerns peonage, aggravated human trafficking of minors and involuntary servitude; provides for forfeiture; includes knowingly destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating or possessing any actual or purported government identification document of another person; provides for privacy of addresses.
Maryland HB 283 (2010)
This bill adds certain sexual coercive activity to existing human trafficking laws. Prohibits a person from knowingly engaging in a device, scheme, or continuing course of conduct intended to cause another to believe that if the other does not take part in a sexually explicit performance the other or a third person would suffer physical restraint or serious physical harm or from destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or possessing an actual or purported passport, immigration document, or government identification document of the other while doing so.
Maryland HB 65 (2010)
Requiring an international marriage broker to provide specified information to a recruit; requiring a client of an international marriage broker to provide specified information to the international marriage broker and to affirm that specified information is accurate and complete; requiring an international marriage broker to conduct a specified criminal history records check; prohibiting an international marriage broker from providing specified information to a specified client.
Maryland SB 542 (2010)
Requires the Department of Labor, Licensing, and Regulation to design a sign that contains specified information regarding the National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline; requiring the sign to meet specified requirements and be placed on the Department’s website; requiring a lodging establishment to post a specified sign if the lodging establishment is located on property where arrests leading to conviction for prostitution, solicitation of a minor, or human trafficking have occurred.
Michigan HB 5748 (§750.451 et seq.) (2006) (See also Penalty section)
Forbids forced labor or services by threatening the destruction of immigration documents, and increases penalties for human trafficking.
North Carolina HB 1896 (2006) (See also Penalty section)
Includes in the definition of trafficking, threatening to destroy, conceal, remove, confiscate, or possess any actual or purported passport or other immigration document or any other actual or purported government identification document of another person.
Virginia HB 2016 (2009) (See also Penalty section)
Redefines intimidation to include withholding a person’s passport or like documents.
Virginia SB 815 and SB 2212 (2007)
Provides that any person knowingly destroys, conceals, removes, confiscates, withholds or threatens to withhold, or possesses any actual or purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document, of another person is guilty of a Class 5 felony.
Laws that establish extortion if threats to report immigration status
Colorado SB 004 and 005 (2006)
Makes threatening the destruction of immigration or work documents or threatening the notification of law enforcement officials of undocumented status in order to force a person into labor or services, with or without compensation, a Class 6 felony.
Virginia SB 291 (2006)
Makes the act of threatening an individual with reporting illegal status to officials for the purposes of extorting money a class 5 felony.
California SB 657 (2010)
This bill would enact the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010, and would, beginning January 1, 2012, require retail sellers and manufacturers doing business in the state to disclose their efforts to eradicate slavery and human trafficking from their direct supply chains for tangible goods offered for sale, as specified. That provision would not apply to a retail seller or manufacturer having less than $100,000,000 in annual worldwide gross receipts. The bill would also make a specified statement of legislative intent regarding slavery and human trafficking. The bill would also require the Franchise Tax Board to make available to the Attorney General a list of retail sellers and manufacturers required to disclose efforts to eradicate slavery and human trafficking pursuant to that provision, as specified.
California ACR 6 (2011)
This resolution would recognize the month of January as National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month and Feb. 1, 2011, as California’s Free from Slavery Day. The Legislature recognizes the vital role California can play in preventing, and one day ending, modern slavery.
Colorado HB 1326 (§16-22-108) (2007)
Requires those convicted of trafficking in children as defined to register their email address and any online identifier with the state.
Connecticut H 5030 (2010)
Concerns the forfeiture of money and property related to child sexual exploitation and human trafficking, the possession of child pornography and the siting of residential sexual offender treatment facilities.
Illinois HB 1299 (735 ILCS 5/13-225) (2006)
Creates the Predator Accountability Act which establishes a cause of action against a person who: (i) coerced an individual into prostitution; (ii) coerced an individual to remain in prostitution; (iii) used coercion to collect or receive any of an individual’s earnings derived from prostitution; or (iv) advertised or published advertisements for purposes of recruitment into prostitution.
Indiana HB 1386 (§11-8-8-5 et seq.) (2007)
Allows those convicted of crimes related to human trafficking to be classified as a sex offender who may be required to register.
Iowa SF 120 (2011)
Adds grounds for which the Board of Educational Examiners is required to disqualify an applicant or to revoke a license; includes enticing a minor and human trafficking; includes crimes committed in another jurisdiction; and relates to any comparable offense that may be prosecuted in federal, military or foreign court.
Louisiana SB 56 (2010)
Provides for the seizure and impoundment of the personal property used in the commission of cyberstalking, human trafficking, trafficking of children for sexual purposes, felony carnal knowledge of a juvenile, indecent behavior with juveniles, pornography involving juveniles, molestation of a juvenile, computer-aided solicitation of a minor, and enticing persons into prostitution; provides for public sale of the property and for exemptions; provides penalty for falsifying information to exempt property.
Maryland HB 1322 (2010)
Requires the Department of Labor, Licensing, and Regulation to design a sign that contains information regarding the National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline that meets certain requirements and to be placed on the department’s website; requires a lodging establishment to post a certain sign in certain places if certain conditions are met; provides a penalty for the violation of provisions of this act.
Missouri HB 353 (Section 566.200 – 566.223) (2005)
Addresses human trafficking by establishing requirements for international matchmaking organizations.
North Carolina HB 1403 (2010)
Requires that a DNA sample be taken from any person arrested for committing murder, manslaughter, kidnapping, abduction, human trafficking, burglary, and various sex and stalking offenses including cyberstalking; amends the statutes that provide for a DNA sample upon conviction; provides funding for the DNA database and databank.
Oregon HB 3623 a (2010)
Requires Oregon Liquor Control Commission to include informational materials regarding human trafficking with certain on-premises sales, off-premises sales or brewery-public house licensee renewal notices, if materials are supplied by nonprofit organization; applies to license renewal notices that commission sends before January 1, 2012; declares emergency, effective on passage.
Pennsylvania SR 12 (2011)
A resolution recognizing Jan. 11, 2011, as National Human Trafficking Awareness Day in Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island HB 7027 (2010)
(Resolution) Proclaims the month of January 2010 to be National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month” in the state of Rhode Island.
Tennessee SB 3267 (2010)
Requires reports of child abuse to include, to the extent known by the reporter, the name, address, telephone number and age of the child and the person responsible for their care; relates to reports of alleged human trafficking or child pornography and investigation of severe child abuse; requires any school official, personnel, or member of a board of education who is aware of employee misconduct involving child abuse to immediately notify the Department of Children’s Services or other specified entities. If the department receives information containing references to alleged human trafficking or child pornography which does or does not result in an investigation by the department, the department shall notify the appropriate law enforcement agency immediately upon receipt of such information.
Texas HR 1578 (2011)
Recognizes April 27, 2011, as Anti-Human Trafficking Day at the State Capitol.
Texas SR 826 (2011)
Recognizes April 27, 2011, as Anti-Human Trafficking Day at the State Capitol.
Texas HB 533 (2009)
Provides that it is not a defense to civil liability for trafficking of persons that a defendant has been acquitted or has not been prosecuted or convicted or has been convicted of a different offense.
Texas SB 11 & SCR 90 (Penal Code § 20A.01) (2007)
Provides additional language to the definition of human trafficking.
Virginia SB 1453 (2011)
Department of Criminal Justice Services; human trafficking. Requires the Department of Criminal Justice Services to, in conjunction with the Office of the Attorney General, advise law enforcement agencies and attorneys for the Commonwealth regarding identification, investigation, and prosecution of human trafficking offenses using the common law and existing Virginia criminal statutes.
Virginia HJR 561 (2010) (Adopted in 2011)
Designates Jan. 11 in 2011 and in each succeeding year as Global Human Trafficking Awareness Day in Virginia. The effort by individuals, businesses, organizations and governing bodies to promote the annual observance of the National Day of Human Trafficking Awareness on January 11 represents one of many examples of the ongoing commitment in the United States to raise awareness of and opposition to human trafficking.
Virginia HB 1113 (2010)
Requires that a vehicle knowingly used by the owner or another with the owner’s knowledge during the commission of any felony abduction offense or pandering when the prostitute is a minor shall be seized by the arresting law-enforcement officer and forfeited to the Commonwealth.
Vermont HCR 26 (2011)
Creates National Human Trafficking Awareness Month in Vermont.
Washington HB 1874 (2011)
Permits law enforcement personnel to record a communication with one party’s consent if there is probable cause to believe the communication involves commercial sexual abuse of a minor, promotes commercial sexual abuse of a minor, or promotes travel for commercial sexual abuse of a minor; and permits law enforcement personnel to employ a minor in investigating certain sex offenses when the minor’s aid is limited to telephonic or electronic communication or when an investigation is authorized by the one-party consent laws. Companion bill Washington SB 5545 (2011).
Washington SR 8605 (2011)
Observes National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention month.
Washington SB 6330 (2010)
Permits the placement of human trafficking informational posters in rest areas; provides the posters may be in a variety of languages and include toll-free telephone numbers a person may call for assistance, including the number for national human trafficking resource center and the number for the state Office of Crime Victims Advocacy.
Washington SB 6332 (2010)
Modifies human trafficking provisions relating to the definition of foreign worker, furnishing disclosure statements and informational pamphlets, and liability of an international labor recruitment agency; requires the Department of Labor and Industries to integrate into existing posters and brochures, information on assisting victims of human trafficking.
- Sarah Hammond, Program Director, Law and Criminal Justice Program
- Jennifer Arguinzoni, Policy Specialist, Law and Criminal Justice Committee
- Rich Williams, Policy Associate, Law and Criminal Justice Program
- Sean Kelly, Summer Fellow, Law and Criminal Justice Committee
- Jennifer Bailey, Emerson National Hunger Fellow, Immigrant Policy Project, NCSL
State laws related to immigration.
Statutes are provided as representative examples; this may not be a complete list or analysis.
This is an unpublished NCSL research document, for reference only.
Updated February 14, 2012